Everything You Need to Know about SAT Reading to Work Towards a Perfect Score: Format, Content, Strategies, and Master Tips
What is SAT Reading? Why does your score matter? What are the key differences between the SAT Reading and ACT Reading section, and how do you choose between them? What are key strategies and master tips to help you work towards a perfect score in SAT Reading?
In this article, you will find answers to the previous questions as well as others. Let’s get started.
SAT Reading is a 65-minute, 52-question reading test. The test consists of four reading passages and one set of paired-passages. Each passage (or set of passages) is followed by 10-12 multiple-choice questions designed to assess your reading comprehension skills as well as your rhetorical skills. At least one of the passages includes a chart/graph and all questions are passage-based.
According to College Board, the passages include:
- One passage from a classic or contemporary work of U.S. or World Literature.
- One passage or a pair of passages from a historical document.
- A selection about economics, psychology, sociology, or some other social science.
- Two science passages (or one passage and one passage pair) that examine foundational concepts and developments in Earth science, biology, chemistry, or physics.
The Reading Test questions are divided into three major content areas
- Information and Ideas: citing and analyzing textual evidence, reading closely, determining central ideas and themes, understanding relationships, and interpreting words in context
- Rhetoric: sentence structure, word choice, perspective, purpose, author’s tone and style
- Synthesis: analyzing patterns, word choice, and quantitative information
Why the SAT Reading Score Matters
- The Truth: Your Test Prep Scores Matter for College Admissions: It’s one of the sure things in the college admissions process: your scores on the SAT and ACT do matter. All colleges in the country and abroad consider students’ ACT scores and GPA during the admissions process. Each college has a unique process and considers the two factors differently. To put yourself in the absolute best position to choose which school may be the best fit for you, you want to do everything possible to prep and review for your ACT and SAT. So you are aware, with few exceptions, most colleges look for a minimum score on one of these two tests as part of their admissions requirements. This means that you need a high score to be classified with other top students and, therefore, to increase your chances of going to the college or university of your choice.
- You’re Investing in Your Future – Higher Test Prep Scores Equal More Merit Based Scholarships: More importantly, college is often the most expensive financial decision most families make. More points on either standardized test (SAT or ACT) will put you in the running for merit based scholarships and financial aid. While test prep resources may cost some time and money in the short term, merit aid saves you tens of thousands of dollars on college tuition in the long term
- Your Test Prep Scores Impact Your Future Major: A high score in the Reading section can make up for less-than-perfect scores in other areas of the test. A high grade in the Reading section can help you to compete effectively for a place at the colleges or universities to which you are applying. Moreover, if you expect to major in humanities or English, your SAT Reading score may have a significant impact on your overall application.
Regardless of your top schools, to put yourself in the absolute best position to choose which schools may be the best fit for you, you want to do everything possible to prep and review for your ACT and SAT. Confidence matters and you need to believe that it’s possible for you to work towards a perfect score. In fact, a perfect score may be more likely than you think. By understanding the test and by knowing how to prepare for it, your chances of achieving a high score increase remarkably.
Once you believe that a high score is possible and commit yourself to studying, then you need to understand the test’s scoring method and structure.
There are two kinds of scores in the SAT Reading test:
- RAW SCORE: it’s the point for point score — you get a point for every correct answer and no points for incorrect or omitted answers.
- SCALED SCORE: your raw score is converted to a scaled score out of 200 – 800. This scaled score is based upon the level of performance and data collected from all other test takers. Simply put, you want to do as best as possible by answering as many questions correct as you can.
Types of Questions:
- Detail: This type of question asks you about a specific detail within the passage. These types of questions typically appear in the following forms “The author states that” or “According to the passage“. When addressing detail questions, watch for paraphrased answers that are relevant to the passage.
- Purpose/ Main Idea: Main idea questions ask you to determine and evaluate the passage’s overall focus and purpose. Do your best to eliminate answer choices that are too broad or out of scope. When determining the purpose of a passage, consider the author’s tone and style and why the passage is constructed the way it is. Furthermore, do not assume that the first paragraph always contains the main idea of the passage.
- Inference: Inference questions ask you to draw conclusions or implied meanings that are not stated in the passage. Often, these questions are based on textual evidence and require a deeper level of understanding.
- Vocabulary in Context: These types of questions ask you to evaluate a word or phrase in the context of a sentence or passage. When addressing vocabulary in context questions, it is best to read the sentence prior and following the specified portion to better understand the overall context and flow. These questions may also ask you to make observations about the effect of a certain word choice or sentence placement.
- Command of Evidence: Command of evidence questions refer back to previous questions and ask you to provide support for your answer. These questions are typically paired with detail or inference questions.
- Data Interpretation: Data interpretation questions ask you to draw patterns, relationships, and connections between charts, tables, and graphs. When targeting these types of questions, first make sure to clearly understand the question being asked then look for the variables being measured and constants on the axes or column headers. After identifying variables, find a pattern or relationship within the data. Quick Tip – look for the lowest and highest in the series and see if they follow the same order.
Notice: each type of question tests a different reading comprehension skill such as the ability to find the main point and analyzing the author/narrator’s voice. Preparation tests will help you understand each type of question more specifically and teach you to strategically find the correct answers.
During the college admission process, colleges do not usually prefer one test over the other (if they do, they will tell you). As a rule, the ACT and SAT tests are treated equally in the admission process. Both tests have points of similarity and points of difference. In our experience if the decision is difficult for you to make, practice both tests under real test conditions, score yourself, and pay attention to your strengths in each test as well as your rate of improvement as you continue to practice. In addition, consider carefully the difficulty of all the sections before making a final decision.
Given that both tests have slightly different questions with different nuances and timing, we strongly recommend for you to take practice tests under real test conditions to evaluate which test may be in your best interest.
|SAT Reading Test||ACT Reading Test||PSAT Reading Test|
|Format||52 questions, 5 Passages, Multiple Choice||60 questions, Multiple-choice, 1 section (all calculator questions)||47 questions, 5 Passages, Multiple Choice|
|Content||Information and Ideas, Rhetoric, Synthesis||Usage and Mechanics, Rhetoric, Development||Information and Ideas, Rhetoric, Synthesis|
|Scoring||Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Score: 200 – 800, Reading Test Score: 10 – 40||Reading score: 1 - 36||Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Score: 160 – 760, Reading Test Score: 8 – 38|
|Time Per Question||Average of 75 seconds||Average of 25 seconds||Average of 45 seconds|
|Question Difficulty||Questions are not in order of difficulty||Questions are not in order of difficulty||Questions are not in order of difficulty|
|Time||65 minutes||60 minutes||60 minutes|
Now that you have learned about the SAT Reading Test format, structure, and scoring, it is time to learn key strategies for getting a top score in SAT Reading.
STRATEGY #1: Understand The Overall Format of the SAT Reading Test in Terms of Your Time
A few immediate need to knows – 1) the entire SAT Reading Test is 52 multiple choice questions and 5 passages in 65 minutes 2) scoring ranges from 200 – 800 and 3) the questions are not in order of difficulty. The point being is that by understanding the format and types of questions, you’ll become more accustomed with an approach, pace, and style.
STRATEGY #2: Read Smart!
There’s no one right way to approach the Reading section. Some students work best by skimming the passage first; then looking at the questions; then working through the questions, doing what many consider are the easiest questions first. Other students combine these basic steps in different patterns.
The point is that as you practice you should figure out the strategy that works best for you – and once you find it, stick to it. Whatever your approach, remember that your time is limited so you need to develop habits that keep you moving along.
A few quick tips
- Skim the lines quickly as many of the questions will guide you
- As your reading, look for contextual clues to identify the author’s topic, scope, and purpose
- Use a pencil or your finger to keep your eyes focused
Be aware that the most common rhetorical skills when reading smart include:
- Organization and Sentence Structure: transition statements, appositives, and addition and deletion sentences
- Style: idioms and redundancies
- Strategy: addition or placement, conciseness, deletion, omitting unnecessary info, summarizing, and author intent and tone
STRATEGY #3: Understand the Different Types of Reading Passages and Different Types of Questions Asked
As mentioned above, there are different types of passages and questions. When preparing for the SAT Reading Test, be aware of the different passages and types of questions to anticipate the main idea and the author’s purpose.
When diving deeper into each passage, remember to ask, “Why did the author write this piece?” “What is his or her main interest?”. If asked to draw an inference about how (for example) one author would respond to the other author, again, stay with the textual evidence and not what you think or how you would respond.
In summary, The SAT Reading Test focuses primarily on 1) an author’s intention in writing 2) the use of evidence 3) inferences and deductions 4) vocabulary and 5) the comparison of passages.
STRATEGY #4: Questions About Evidence Will Often Ask Where a Sentence or Detail Should be Added to Achieve a Specific Effect
As you learn to read smart, attempt to follow the way that an argument unfolds. If you find yourself thinking, “Why did the author put this sentence here?” and if the sentence is underlined, be aware you’ll probably need to consider relocating it. Because this category of question will point to placement before or after other sentences, ask yourself where the sentence would make the argument flow most smoothly. If the sentence presents evidence, ask yourself where that evidence is needed in order to drive home a point.
STRATEGY #5: Determine What Kind of Evidence an Author Uses.
Evidence comes in different forms. It can come as quotations, definitions, or data (whether in a sentence or in a chart).
A. As you move through the passage, ask yourself how the author is constructing the argument. Where is evidence introduced? Why there?
B. If a reference is made to a graph or chart, follow the instructions in the question to hone in on the precise area that you need. Long-term implications of a graph, for example, are seldom at issue. Mostly you’ll need to look at a specific segment of the passage to get the answer.
STRATEGY TIP #6: Be Careful About Inferences and Deductions
When asked to draw an inference or make a deduction, ask yourself what you think the author would say. Stay focused on the context of the sentence or word that is underlined.
A. On occasion, questions on the SAT will set you up to choose a point of view that you may believe in, but which the passage does not support. Remember that your responsibility is to the text in front of you.
B. This is not an English class where you are encouraged to “argue” with the author’s point of view. Stay with the text.
C. If you are asked to infer the meaning of a word, look for the context. While the SAT can still assume that you should know the meaning of a word, the ACT will give you context clues to help narrow your choices.
D. You can also supply a word that you already know that makes sense of a sentence. Then try to align that word with one of the choices in the question.
STRATEGY #7: Be Honest About What You Need to Improve Your Score.
With a bit of honesty about what you don’t understand, you can take charge of your learning in ways that help you to master the SAT and to enhance your skills as a life-long learner.
STRATEGY #8: Practice, Practice, Practice!
Practice deeply! This is not just taking random math practice problems and checking your score but digging deeper and categorizing each mistake until the answer is fully justified. Start by taking several authentic Math SAT diagnostics measuring your progress and identifying areas of weakness for you to go and review. Embracetutoring.com provides a number of free supplemental materials to get you started.
Work on your approach and your timing. When evaluating your practice tests, be absolutely brutal about understanding your mistakes. Deep practice is being your own toughest critic. More important than finding the mistake, is seriously understanding why you may have missed that question in the first place. You need to always be able to justify your answer earnestly. This process is important because it allows you to identify your high level weaknesses early on to manage your time more effectively. As you are studying, we would recommend keeping a log and categorizing your mistakes and questions you’re unsure of.
Write down 1) the general idea of the question 2) what you believed the question was asking and 3) the strategy you will use in the future to answer the question correctly.
Use the Resources at Embrace Tutoring and Educational Services
- Embrace Tutoring and Educational Services has exceptional resources, many of them are custom-designed to help you review the content areas discussed in this article.
- Because our diagnostic tests break out the precise types of questions on each test, you’ll be able to quickly identify those areas in which your skills are strong or those areas in which you need improvement.
- In addition to practice resources, we offer the best personal and online tutoring services to help you achieve to the best of your ability.
Test Day and Beyond
Readying Yourself The Day Before The Test
- Plan how you will get to the test site. If it’s in a large school or office building, be sure to find out which door you should enter to register for the test. If you haven’t been in the building before, find out how to get to the room.
- Set two alarms. Even though alarms rarely fail, it can happen. You always want to have a backup.
- Pack your items the night before.
- Review the test directions so you’re aware of what is expected on test day.
What To Pack
- Photo admission ticket and valid photo ID: A valid driver’s license, school, or state-issued ID are acceptable. Remember that the photo must resemble you on the day of the exam and comply with the rules posted on www.collegeboard.org/sat.
- Several number 2 pencils with soft erasers.
- Approved calculator with fresh batteries.
- Water in a clear bottle, label removed.